Monday, 30 April 2018

Mawlynnong – The Floweriest Village in the Whole World

A meandering path through trees and flowery bushes brings you to a pretty house with a sloping roof. The house nestles among more flowers. Whichever way you look, there are flowers smiling. This is the prettiest house you have ever seen – not in the hills or a suburb of a metro but in a village in one of the remotest parts of India bordering Bangladesh. Under brilliant blue skies with the sun spreading warmth on a winter December day, you find yourself in the most beautiful village. 

Tall Broom Grass lining the road to Mawlynnong

You have just driven through a scenic road with tall Broom grass lining the smooth tarred road on your way to Mawlynnong, ninety km from Shillong in Meghalaya. Mawlynnong has an unusually surprising tag especially given the sanitary condition of India’s cities, towns and villages. Oh yes, the cluster of flowers or inflorescence of Thysanolaena maxima or the Broom grass, grown as a cash crop, goes into the making of our household phool jhadu. It will soon have a serendipitous resonance with the fame of the village.

Mawlynnong - India's Prettiest Village

It will come as a surprise to all Indians that Mawlynnong was given the honour of “The Cleanest Village in Asia” by the travel magazine ‘Discover India’ magazine in 2003. Finally, villages of India are enjoying their days in the spotlight. So while Mana village in Garhwal bordering Tibet, is famous as ‘Last Indian Village,’ Kuldhara near Jaisalmer is supposedly a haunted village when the entire resident population deserted it overnight and the Heritage Crafts Village of Raghurajpur in Odisha has artisans in every household practising the ancient art of Pattachitra. Back here in the North-East, Mawlynnong is basking in its unique title; an epithet later echoed by BBC, UNESCO and Nat Geo.

Mawlynnong Scenes: A House in the prettiest setting

Yes, the village is squeaky clean – okay the cleanest and the most beautiful village you have ever been to. The greenery is everywhere, flowers glow in the sun and a gentle refreshing breeze tiptoes through the village lanes. Coming from smoggy Delhi, it is hard to imagine that something basic like breathing could be so nourishing and refreshing. Now that you notice there are these bamboo conical basket cases, locally called khoh, that are supposed to be trash bins.  There is no litter to be seen anywhere; there are no polythene bags or chip packets flying around. It is unbelievable that such a place actually exists in India. And it is so serene here. Except for the laundry drying in the sun, the simple houses built of bamboo, wood and metal sheets seem to be empty. Once in a while a child walks out smiling trying to evade the camera of a prying tourist!

The Beautiful houses and paths of Mawlynnong

The village did not turn pristine overnight. The residents of the hundred year old village always remember the village this clean with the cleanliness habit being handed down over the generations. Children are taught to keep their surroundings clean. Each house has a toilet and there is no open defecation. It is only the tourists like us unaccustomed to clean ways who might throw packets or wrappers around. The village with a population of 500 and 90 families though has seen some changes; few cement houses have been built, roofs have satellite dishes and the cobbled streets have turned into concrete paths but the cleanliness ethos have remain unchanged.

The bamboo waste baskets can be seen along the village paths

Long before the Prime Minister launched Clean India Campaign, the inhabitants of Mawlynnong with 100% literacy were already practising cleanliness. The village council governs this community effort where polythene and smoking are banned and the streets are swept by the residents themselves. The kids pitch in by picking any dirt and dropping it into the baskets before going to school. The organic waste is collected and turned into manure which is then used to grow organic produce. Mawlynnong’s headman was thrilled with the recognition when the PM lauded the village’s efforts involving the citizens in keeping their village clean during his monthly Mann Ki Baat program on radio.

The Beautiful Cosmos flower

The village along with being the cleanest is definitely the floweriest village in India.  As in a trance, you walk through the lanes in complete joy and awe. Flowers, ornamental shrubs and tall areca nut palms line the alleys covering every inch of the landscape. The feeling is almost similar to when you walked through the flowery canvas of Valley of Flowers in Uttarakhand. Canary yellow Allamanda, the heart achingly beautiful Cosmos set against the blue skies, purple and white Flamingo Feathers, Golden Shrimp, never seen before Pink Jacobinia, the stunning Scarlet Clock Vine and the ethereal Bleeding Heart Vine made to adorn the hair of princess all come together to create a magical garden where you want to dance and sing with abandon.

Every which way there is an astounding variety of happy flowers in all colours – swamping the lanes, hanging like garlands from eaves, in pots and in the small gardens around the houses. It seems the village started as a large garden. The houses came later and now are just incidental. Mawlynnong is definitely ‘God’s Own Garden!’

The Wonder Rock at Mawryngkew; on the way to Mawlynnong

Mawlynnong, in a remote corner of this incredible country, is a perfect stop to spend a couple of days soaking up the Khasi culture. The village has several homestays. One of these houses offers you a delicious vegetarian lunch. A guesthouse built of bamboo provides tree-top accommodation along with an unmatched experience. The ‘Sky View’ has a viewing gallery built high on top of trees that offers views of plains of Bangladesh. At Mawryngkew, on the road leading to the village, a huge Balancing or Wonder Rock incredibly balances itself inches above the ground on a tiny stone below.

The Living Root Bridge of Riwai

The biggest surprise is two kilometres away in the village of Riwai. Here you actually get to walk on a Living Root Bridge (Jingkieng Jri), a bioengineering feat, across a stream. A living root bridge is an ingenious way of connecting communities across the criss-crossing streams in these remote locations especially during monsoons when the streams turn into swollen frenzy. The bridge is formed by training the aerial roots of rubber trees (Ficus elastic) through the hollow trunk of areca nut palms on either side to span the width of a river. It might take years before the intertwined and complex web of the living roots become strong enough to carry the weight of people. Some of the bridges are over hundred years old. So while the conventional steel and concrete bridges become weak over the years, these breathing and growing root bridges become stronger.

Mawlynnong - Blue Skies and Yellow Flowers

In Mawlynnong, do not think much about what to see or do; simply walk the village lanes. The flowers, the greenery, the tall swaying palm trees will keep you wonderstruck all day. The sheer variety of flowers is incredible. The cold winter afternoon has never felt so crisp and perfect. Few minutes of this experience is guaranteed to lull you into a sweet stupor. You wish, just like in the Haryana villages, there was a chaupal here too, so that you could have just pulled a charpai and napped sprawled under the gentle warm sun.

As the soft sun caresses the flowers and the smiling kids flit around like butterflies, you realize this is an experience that can be easily replicated across our villages and cities. We would all love to live in clean surroundings among flowers. All it takes is some community spirit and resolve. Mawlynnong does not need to feel like a foreign country. We together can make more Mawlynnong flowers bloom across our country.

Getting There
Mawlynnong is located in the East Khasi Hills about 90 kms south of Shillong in Meghalaya. The two hour drive is pleasant offering amazing views of mountains and narrow winding road through clumps of bamboos and broom grass.

Hiring a taxi from Shillong is a good idea for the day long excursion unless you want to stay over in Mawlynnong in one of the several homestays. In that case, you can check with Meghalaya Tourism’s bus services that can drop you here. The office is in Police Bazaar, downtown Shillong. The Meghalaya Tourism buses only run if they get minimum 10 or 15 passengers. You can leave your phone number with them and if they get enough people by the end of the day, they will call you to make payment. Alternatively, you can take shared jeeps from Bara Bazaar with a stopover at the midway point Pynursla.

When in Mawlynnong
Hire a local guide who can take you around the village. Stay in one of the homestays and mingle with local families. Go trekking on several trails that lead to neighbouring villages and beyond along stone pathways called the King’s Way. Visit a neighbouring Sacred Grove which are forests protected by the local communities and are believed to be the abode of deities. The groves are a treasure trove of plants, trees and animals.

A version of the story appeared in the Winter 2018 edition of Namaste - magazine of ITC Hotels.

Namaste - The ITC Hotels Magazine

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Friday, 20 April 2018

The Glittering Universe of Varun Tree

You are just happy the match did not go into third game or you would have missed the Ultimate Sight of Delhi’s Spring

There was a time when the sight of monuments made you delirious. You still remember how happy you were when you saw the group of tombs in Ashtur near Bidar in Karnataka. Ashtur is the royal necropolis of Bahamani Sultans. Or the time when you walked the wooded path to finally make your way to this temple in Terahi, deep inside north MP, with sculptures of ghastly skeletons and ghosts chomping on bones for company. These days you have a new reason to feel delirious.

Varuna Tree - Stars glimmer in the Varun universe

Delhi despite the bad rap it gets for the foul air, has its moments of sheer beauty. These moments are ephemeral and the luck has to smile on you to savour these moments. But then luck favours the brave. Getting up early on Sunday mornings qualifies as the highest order of bravery. And the luck will smile and how!

Just when the sofa was becoming comfortable watching Saina and PV Sindhu slugging it out in the Commonwealth Badminton finals, the match is over in two games. You wrench yourself out of the house. Sunday mornings are really tough to leave the bed. But the rewards have been commensurate over the past few weekends as you go tree spotting across the parks and avenues of New Delhi. Bougainvillea blitz in Lodi Gardens, yellow shower of Caribbean Trumpets and the vermillion fire of Palash on the ridge have made you discover the pretty nature side of Delhi. You usually plan as you drive out. Last weekend, Sanjay Van, the rapidly getting ornamented part of South Central Ridge in Mehrauli won as you tossed a coin in your head. This time, you have a feeling that Talkatora Garden will surprise you. It does and how!

This is your second visit to Talkatora Garden and this time you realise the park is a treasure trove of trees waiting to be discovered. Trees like Sita-Ashok, Amla, Gab, Kadamb (yes, the real one) and dozens more will keep you busy and awed. Per square metre, it seems Talkatora has more interesting trees than other well known parks in Delhi. You will already be giddy with delight. The next stage is about to come. The needle is hitting the red zone of the giddymetre. And it will blow the roof off.

Peeping behind the probably largest Kosam tree in Delhi is the biggest surprise. You do a double take – is that Chudail Papdi’s stack of golden asharfis that you recently saw at Allah Aashiq Dargah or is it what you think it is.

Barna Tree in Delhi - The Ultimate sight of a blooming Barna Tree in Delhi's Talkatora Garden

Varuna Flowers

A tree blooms in white and yellow glory. You pretend you don't see it. This is a game of hide and seek. It could just disappear. You approach the tree gingerly. You are not sure if what you are witnessing is real. This is a Varun tree clad in breathtaking spring finery; and it is real and absolutely spectacular. You have not seen a sight so beautiful. This is a view straight out of Japan’s Cherry Blossom Festival.

The Stunning Varun - Just when you thought Spring surprises were over in Delhi

For first few minutes you go delirious. Earlier, it was the monuments; now trees seem to have the same effect on you. You are in a spell and unable to understand what to do. For the next hour you circle the tree several times; you stare, you gape, you sit, you admire, and then you give up the idea of the next stop. These spring flowers, as you have found out are ephemeral – you are sure the moment you turn your eyes away they will be gone.

Three Leaf Caper - The Happy Barbet in the Barna Blooms

Varun Universe - The twinkling blooms

Garlic Pear Tree - The spellbinding sight in Talkatora Garden

Flowers are popping out everywhere - even from the main trunk of the tree!

The tree is absolutely bereft of leaves. It is just branches and flowers. The flowering is so profuse that it seems flowers are sprouting even from the branches. The bees and butterflies are going crazy. All you can hear is this constant buzz of equally delirious bees. A Barbet is hopping among the branches. The scene is getting prettier by the minute. You don’t want to go anywhere. You admire the tree from a distance, then you walk under the tree admiring the scenes some more. Sometimes the flowers look like butterflies themselves, sometimes they sparkle like gems against the sun. Against the dark canopy of a mango tree they seem to bejewel the mango leaves.

The Varun Universe visible on Spring afternoons

The Prettiest Sight

You lie down on the grass under millions of glittering stars. This is your own gossamer universe. A universe that is only seen during daylight. It is an universe that sways gently and seem to change form with the slightest breeze. It is an universe inhabited with bees and butterflies. Occasionally, a shooting star falls on you. You can look at the views all day.

Varun or Barna - Scientific Name: Crataeva adansonii subsp. odora

Varun or Barna (Crataeva adansonii subsp. odora belonging to Capparaceae or Caper family) is a small crooked deciduous tree found across India, Indo-China and Africa. It remains leafless for long periods to withstand drought. But in late April it turns out a scintillating show with its densely clustered white flowers that gradually turn yellow. The stamens with electric-purple filaments make the flowers absolutely stunning. No wonder the bees have the buzz without partaking of any beverage. You remember seeing your first Varun tree flowering on the road in front of the Yogmaya Temple in Mehrauli. That was just a teaser. After couple of years, Nature puts on a full feature film just for you.

The Varun tree is also called Garlic Pear Tree, Caper Tree, Three leaf Caper and Obtuse Leaf Crateva

The Varuna tree found across the country has names in almost all languages - Manipuri - Loiyumba Lei, Tamil - Marvilinga, Bengali - Barun, Sanskrit - Varuna, Malayalam - Nir Mathalam, Kannada - Nirvala, Telugu - Voolemara

You can stare all day - Barna Hanami

But then not everybody is enamoured of the sight. Kids play cricket totally oblivious to the sight. Lovers scattered around the bushes have more important things to do. It seems the spectacle of the Varun is only visible to the bees, butterflies, the Lineated Barbet and you. But then Nature arranged this sight just for you. These last few days have been remarkable and Nature wants you to keep enjoying the sights. You are pretty sure there are more surprises coming before summer’s last showstopper show of Amaltash. Delhi, you are indeed beautiful!

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Sunday, 15 April 2018

The Palash Fire on Delhi’s Ridge

The view is breathtaking. You have just clambered through thorny bushes on the top of this rocky outcrop that could perhaps be the highest natural point of Central Ridge in New Delhi’s Chanakya Puri. Assorted thorns, vegetation and seemingly velcro-clad seeds stick to your clothing and shoes. Last time you saw something similar was when you had climbed the Lal Kot (Delhi’s First City built by Tomars) ramparts in the South Central Ridge.

दहके हैं डाल पर अंगार या सुमन, सुलगा पलाशवन (Caption Courtesy - Jaishree Khamesra)

However, this time the view is to die for. Interspersed among the mostly bare keekar trees are the glowing orange blooms of Palash trees. For the first time you realise why Palash is called the Flame of the Forest. Before this you had seen your Delhi’s first and lone Palash tree in Nehru Park. As you run your gaze over the forest, it does feel like sporadic flames are licking over the now brown landscape. Delhi has again surprised you. On Holi you could actually mistake the Palash blooms as Holika Dahan bonfires!

Palash Blooms in Delhi's Central Ridge
A Haiku by Gitanjali Mohanty

The Ridge's caught fire
That burning desire..
Getting tangarine tainted

That the flaming Palash has painted

There is something surrealistic about the Palash blooms. The branches seem to have lit up with these bright orange flowers. Stand under a tree and gaze upwards at the spell binding sight. Shaped like the beaks of parrots and therefore also called Kinshuk (resembling parrot’s beak), it is not surprising that the blooms attract parrots the most, who are probably fascinated by the resemblance. Purple Sunbirds flit among the flowers feasting on the nectar of the Raktapushp (red flowers). Squirrels can't believe their luck as they run dazed among the flowers playing peek-a-boo. Flowers drop around you. You never imagined that Delhi will treat you with Palash Hanami. This is heaven.

The most improbable place for some Palash Hanami - On Delhi's Ridge
Palash or Dhak or Tesu (Butea monosperma) is a medium sized deciduous tree that belongs to family Fabaceae. Because of its country-wide presence, it has been lovingly given different names in different languages. The genus Butea refers to beautiful appearance of the flowers. The specific name monosperma means “one seeded or fruit with one seed”. There has been widespread use of Palash in the traditional medicine. Palash is described in Veds, Upanishads, Caraka Samhita (ancient Sanskrit text on Ayurved or Indian traditional medicine) and Susruta Samhita (ancient Sanskrit text on medicine and surgery). In the past, the flowers would be dried and then ground into a coloured powder to be used during the Holi celebrations.

Dhak - The few Palash or Dhak Trees in Delhi's Ridge, seem to be drowning in the sea of Vilayati Keekar, a pest now

In the search of Tesu
Your co-adventurers - it's possible that without their company you wouldn't have been to able to walk these tracks

Palash Tree - A Palash making its presence felt in an inexorable grip by Keekars

But all is not well with Palash here in Delhi. Vilayati Keekar (Prosopis juliflora) introduced by the British on the ridge has become a pest that has caused the extinction of most native trees. It is heartening to see the few Palash trees holding out. You can’t help drawing an analogy here. The Palash trees of the Ridge are like the monuments of Delhi. And the keekars are the ever increasing people and development of Delhi. As the exploding population and development pressures edge out the monuments from the landscape, the keekars infesting the ridge are similarly slowly elbowing out the original inhabitants like Palash, Dhau and Peelu.

Everyone loves Palash
The parrot and since its beak resembles the blooms, the flowers are also called Kinshuk

The squirrels can't seem to believe their luck as they gobble up the Palash blooms

The Purple Sunbird flits among the flowers getting high on Palash nectar

Right now you want to savour the sights. While the vegetation here in Delhi’s driest scrubland is wilting, the bright flowers wrapped around on the crooked branches of an unattractive tree is truly nature’s miracle. It is just not the parrots, sunbirds, squirrels and assorted bees that seem to be enamoured of the flowers; poets and writers too have serenaded the flowers with glowing words.

Palash - The kneeling Buddhist Monks

The Satavahan King Hala offers a unique take on the Palash flowers in the Prakrit anthology Gaha Sattasai:

The Palash flowers resembling
Parrots’ beaks,
Strewn on the forest floor;
Are like a congegration of monks,
Paying homage to the Buddha.

Now that you notice, the palash flower does look like a kneeling Buddhist Bhikshu – what an observation!

Wont it be wonderful to have Palash lined roads in Delhi?!

The 12th century poet Jayadev, author of perhaps the finest Sanskrit poetry work, was also enthralled by the Kinshuk flowers. Barbara Stoler Miller translates a stanza where Jayadev describes the flowers as red nails of Kamdev or Cupid with which he wounds the hearts of lovers:

Tamala tree's fresh leaves absorb strong scent of deer musk.
Flame tree petals, shining nails of love, tear at young hearts.

Palash Magic that made Rabindranath Tagore rapturous

Smitten with their beauty, Rabindranath Tagore sang during the Spring festival at Shantiniketan:

"A little touch? Feel, a few words? Hear with what? Write my spring- song in my mind. Some ecstasy of Palash."

Olive green branches
Flaunt vibrant crimson blossoms
Seasonal bright bloom
The fire of flaming palash

Burns the dark contours of gloom..

Mukesh Pandey Chandan, a friend from Orchha goes mushy with these lines:
तेरी यादों में सर्द हो गया था चाँद
हमने जलाई पलाश की अंगीठी
पर तेरी यादें बर्फ सी जम चुकी थी
मुहब्बत की गर्माहट भी काम आयी
आज भी कुछ अधूरा सा था 
मेरा प्यार, चाँद, याद या पलाश 

While looking for quotes on Palash, you come across this beautiful poem by Neha Chatterjee:

The tree stood tall and proud,
spreading it's arms to meet the sky.
Standing at the far corner,
All alone with might.
Like the mesmerising flames against the darkness,
It's reddish-orange blooms engulf your moments.
The fallen palash are not disgrace but,
enchants you into the lore of Nature.
Once green, now covered in velvety Red,
the Earth now soothes your inner conflict.
The calling cuckoo beckons you to stay rooted.
Hummingbird humming to the breeze,
suckles the honey of the Flame of the Forest.
The squirrels diving into the sea of red,
squeks delightedly at the tree.
Surrounded yet secluded, Palash stood aloof in this world of spree.
Engulfed in the bedeck of it all I stood there enthralled.
The sky wears it's darker clothes today,
An ominous storm on the way.
You don’t remember but there was a show on Doordarshan called ‘Palash ke Phool’ produced by Asha Parekh. And here is the beautiful title song:

मेरा ख्याल है यह,हकीकत सी हो जाना तुम,
मेरी बाहों में कर सो जाना तुम.
अपनी खुशबू से मेरे घर को मखाना तुम,
फूल पलाश के चुन लाना तुम.

दुनिया के नजारे स्वीकार नही,
अपनी मुस्कराहट से मुझे बहलाना तुम.
सुर्ख हो जाये जब ज़िंदगी की फिजा,
फूल पलाश के चुन लाना तुम.

मौसम बसंत का जब भी आएगा,
अपने आँगन में खुशबू लाएगा,
चह चहाती चिडिया सी गाना तुम,
दूर गगन में कहीं उड़ जाना तुम,
फूल पलाश के चुन लाना तुम.

जब भी हो जाये उदास मन मेरा,
मीठी सी बातों को होठों पे रख लाना तुम.
आँगन में उड़ते सूखे पत्तों को,
अपने आँचल में समेट लाना तुम,
फूल पलाश के चुन लाना तुम.

मेरे सपनो को तोड़ कर जाना तुम,
अपने अटूट रिश्ते का विश्वास,
मेरे बेताब दिल को दे जाना तुम,
फूल पलाश के यूँ ही हर बार चुन लाना तुम.

You could take in the views all day. The bunch of kids who have come to see Malcha Mahal, and who, you have dared to go deeper into the forest with you, are feeling restless. Selfies over, we slowly make our way out. But it is not easy. The track splits every now and then and you have to take a call which way to turn. The bonus is that you see more of Palash trees and some of rare native trees of Delhi.

Love in the Times of Palash

Its not only in India that Palash finds so much love. The 12th Century poet Jayadev likened the Palash flowers to the red nails of Kamadev with which he wounds the hearts of lovers.

In neighbouring Thailand, the heart-broken lover on seeing the Tong Guao (Palash) blooms, remembers the broken promises of an unrequited love. She asks the flowers to take her message and tell him that she is still waiting by the Palash blooms.

Have you heard anything so heartachingly beautiful?


Palash is so loved across the country that the tree has names in most of the languages: Palash, Dhak and Tesu in Hindi, Palas in Marathi, Pangong in Manipuri, Kesudo and Khakda in Gujarati, Moduga in Telugu. And it is the state flower of Jharkhand

A View to Palash - You could take in the views all day

You were introduced to the magnificent sight of Palash blooms through these photos shared on social media. The photos set in rural Purulia in West Bengal showed moments in the lives of tribal communities. And in every backdrop there were these trees loaded with gorgeous red flowers. The blooming trees had turned the landscape into joyous colour drenched scenes. The lit-up branches seemed to have put smiles on faces and spring in the feet of all dwellers.

The pictures seemed exotic and of lands faraway. You were not sure if you would ever be able to visit those places. You had no idea that Delhi too offers these incredible sights of Palash flowers ablaze in a forest. Until Purulia happens, Delhi has again smiled on you.

Travel Advice

A group outing is advised. The place does not seem safe though you did not encounter any one. The tracks fork every now and then and you got to just keep going. You possibly saw a pack of jackals who could have been wild dogs. If going alone, it is advised to carry a stick. Phone signals anyway are weak in New Delhi and you will not be able to use GPS. Despite all this, the experience is thrilling and everyone should experience the real Delhi. This is how Delhi looked before Lutyens created New Delhi in this scrubland.

What else to See / Do on the Ridge

There are several dargahs inside the forest that you can visit

You can circumambulate the impeccable lawns of the Polo Ground listening to the birds

From one of the dargahs you can spot the Earth Station’s huge antennae dishes that look like a spaceship. Looking at them gives a spooky feeling – as if you are on the sets of a movie set in the future. You half expect aliens to walk out of the spaceship.

You were trying to make it to the now uninhabited Malcha Mahal. The last occupant Prince Ali Raza (Cyrus), a descendent of the last Nawab of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah died in Jan 2018. His mother and sister too had died as recluses in the spooky Mahal. This time you could not locate the palace. You will give it another try next time.  

Listen to birds chirping, breeze whistling and of course some bird spotting

On your way out, stop at the entrance to witness monkey feeding. Though the red-bottomed Rhesus Monkeys are usually wicked but here feasting on tandoori rotis, tomatoes and bananas has made them comparatively civilized. You can photograph papa monkeys, mama monkeys, baby monkeys and then the alpha monkey as they go around doing monkey business.

Getting There

On Sardar Patel Marg opposite Malcha Marg follow the sign indicating Earth Station. Drive on the track as it winds through canopies of Keekar trees until you see a clearing on the right. Park your car and take one of the dirt tracks. The adventure starts. One track goes northwards when you hit the Polo Ground. A little before the Polo Ground, turn right until you see the rocky outcrop on the right.

Note: Some photos are of the lone Palash tree in Nehru Park, Chanakya Puri, New Delhi

Some Youtube Links:

In search of Palash -

Baranti in Purulia -

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